The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area. İt has a surface area of 380,000 km2. The total length of the coastline (perimeter) is 6380 km. The Caspian Sea is 1205 km long, with the width 554 km and the sea bed in the southern part reaches as low as 1025 m below sea level. The border of Caspian Sea is shared by the following countries:
Russia and Kazakhstan to the north
Azerbaijan to the west
Turkmenistan to the east
Iran to the south
The length of the coastline of the Caspian Sea is about 955,08 km in the Republic of Azerbaijan, 695 km in the Russian Federation, 2320 km in the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1200 km in Turkmenistan, and 900 km in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Islands of the Caspian Sea:
Peninsulas of the Caspian Sea:
Absheron peninsula - in Azerbaijan
Inflows to the Caspian Sea:
Oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea:
The Caspian Sea- apart being important transportation route and an important factor in environmental and air cleanliness, has valuable natural resources. The main wealth of the Caspian Sea is oil and gas. The Agreement has been signed with western oil and gas companies on September 20, 1994 which was later named as the Contract of the Century due to its tremendous importance. The researches show that, the Caspian Sea is a large oil field in the world. Currently, 67% of the oil and 95% of gas produced in Azerbaijan is extracted from the Caspian Sea.
The Caspian Sea is rich with its rare and valuable fish species. More than 100 artificial islets were built and the trestles were arranged on the metal foundations, in the oil-rich region from the depth of 100m to the east of the Absheron Peninsula. The total length of the trestles is more than 400 km. The "Oil Rocks" city, with multi-storey residential buildings and public buildings on it, has been built on the piers.
Biological resources of the Caspian Sea:
The diversity of fauna and flora of the Caspian Sea is unique. It is different from other sea and lakes. Fauna of the Caspian Sea is distinguished from the typical marine fauna. Three reserves had been created in the Caspian Sea coastal zone: the Gizilagac in Azerbaijan, Astrakhan in Russia and Caspian in Turkmenistan. Nearly 920 animal species live in the Caspian Sea. There are 79 species of vertebrates living there. In addition, there are 101 other fish species in the Caspian Sea. They are Caspian Sea sturgeon, stellate sevruga, rock fish, white goldfish, salmon, five species of the Caspian herring, omul, chub and other species of fish.